A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan by Christian Puff

By Christian Puff

Biosystematic reviews at the Rubiaceae have an extended culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this family members the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan contributors, are of specific curiosity due to numerous facets of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside of an differently approximately solely zoophilous family members; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and eventually dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. although, morphological range associated with sexual differentia­ tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our knowing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. hence, it was once relevant to place specific emphasis on box observations and to hold out various experiments with cultivated vegetation as well as the research of an immense herbarium fabric. the writer, as a result, conducted wide box paintings, usually lower than very opposed stipulations, and lined so much African international locations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this method a mess of information was once accrued at the team in admire to germination and development shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu­ tion and ecology, etc.

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Cinerea, Figs. , C. curvifolia, Fig. 15 g). There appears to be a distinct correlation between much reduced or ± absent stipular appendages and small, narrow stipular sheaths. , for example, Figs. 14 h-j, 15 £), although the colleters may only be clearly discernible on younger leaves. In addition, short-stalked colleters may occur on the rim or on the inside of the stipular sheath near the rim (Galopina, cf. Figs. 14 h, 15 i, and Anthospermum species, Figs. 14 i, 15 a). Colleters are a common occurrence on stipular structures of the Rubiaceae and are rather uniform anatomically (cf.

20 g) do not occur very often. It must be stressed that the cell shapes (as seen in surface view) are often variable and are, thus, of virtually no value as a distinguishing character between species or genera. In numerous species it is difficult if not impossible to make out the shapes of the epidermal cells because of the ± thick, continuous cuticles (see below). The average sizes of the upper epidermal cells in surface view are given in Table 1. Except for Carpacoce species, the lower epidermal cells are (considerably) smaller than the upper.

14 h-j, 15 £), although the colleters may only be clearly discernible on younger leaves. In addition, short-stalked colleters may occur on the rim or on the inside of the stipular sheath near the rim (Galopina, cf. Figs. 14 h, 15 i, and Anthospermum species, Figs. 14 i, 15 a). Colleters are a common occurrence on stipular structures of the Rubiaceae and are rather uniform anatomically (cf. SOLEREDER 1893, 1899, KRAUSE 1909). In the Anthosperminae (and in other Rubiaceae), the colleters consist of a central core of elongated cells surrounded by ± horizontally arranged, palisadelike cells (similar, for example, in Alberta and Nematostylis, cf.

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