Abstraction and Specification in Program Development (MIT by Barbara Liskov, John V. Guttag

By Barbara Liskov, John V. Guttag

Abstraction and Specification in software improvement deals pros in application layout and software program engineering a strategy that might allow them to build courses which are trustworthy and fairly effortless to appreciate, alter, and retain. sturdy programming contains the systematic mastery of complexity, and this booklet offers the 1st unified remedy of the innovations of abstraction and specification, which, the authors argue, are the linchpin of any powerful method of programming. They position specific emphasis at the use of information abstraction to provide hugely modular courses. The authors specialise in the method of decomposing huge application initiatives into self sufficient modules that may be assigned to self reliant operating teams. They speak about tools of decomposition, the categories of modules which are Most worthy during this procedure, and methods to extend the chance that modules produced can in reality be recombined to unravel the unique programming challenge. there are numerous examples of abstractions in the course of the textual content, and every bankruptcy ends with pertinent references and workouts. many of the pattern implementations within the ebook are written in CLU, considered one of increasingly more languages capable of help facts abstraction. enough fabric is integrated, even if, to permit the reader to paintings in Pascal in addition. the cloth during this booklet was once built by means of the authors in the course of a decade of training undergraduate, graduate, and professional-level classes. Barbara Liskov, the developer of CLU, is Professor and John Guttag an affiliate Professor of laptop technological know-how at MIT. Abstraction and Specification in software improvement is integrated within the MIT electric Engineering and laptop technological know-how sequence.

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Additional resources for Abstraction and Specification in Program Development (MIT Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Series)

Example text

The inputs to unit testing are: 1. the unit specification 2. the unit code 3. a list of expected test results. The products of unit testing are the test results. Unit testing verifies that the behavior of the coding conforms to its unit specification. In system testing or integration testing, the modules are linked together and the complete system tested. The inputs to system testing are the system specification and the code for the complete system. The outcome of system testing is the completed, tested software, verifying that the system meets its specification.

Validation is a collection of techniques that try to ensure that the software does meet the requirements. On the other hand, reliability is to do with the technical issue of whether there are any faults in the software. Currently testing is one of the main techniques for trying to ensure that software works correctly. In testing, the software is run and its behavior checked against what is expected to happen. However, as we shall see later in this book, there is a fundamental problem with testing: however much you test a piece of software, you can never be sure that you have found every last bug.

3 shows typical figures. Clearly the cost of testing is enormous, whereas coding constitutes only a small part of software development. 3 Relative costs of the stages of software development method was devised that ensured the software was correct from the start, then testing would be unnecessary, and therefore only half the usual effort would be needed. Such a method would be a discovery indeed! If mistakes are a major problem, when are they made? 4 shows figures showing the number of errors made at the various stages of a typical project: However, this data is rather misleading.

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