By Philipp Haller
Contemporary developments in laptop structure make concurrency and parallelism a vital factor of effective application execution. The actor version of concurrency helps you to show real-world concurrency in a common manner utilizing concurrent procedures that speak through asynchronous messages. Scala is a programming language for the Java digital computing device, supplying first-class aid for either object-oriented and practical programming. by way of together with a strong actor framework in its commonplace library, Scala bargains a compelling method of take on concurrent programming. Scala's actors allow you to follow the actor concurrency version to the JVM, permitting real-world suggestions which are effective, scalable, and powerful. released by way of Artima, this is often the 1st ebook on Scala's actors, co-authored by means of the author and lead maintainer, Philipp Haller, and Frank Sommers. beginning with the basics of the actor concurrency version, this publication deals a accomplished instructional on sensible programming with actors in Scala. It lets you leverage the total energy of present day and tomorrow's multi-core processors through describing either simple and complicated positive factors of Scala's actor framework in-depth.
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Extra info for Actors in Scala
Because actor-based programming is designed with concurrency assumed, it is theoretically possible to implement any sequential program in a concurrent manner with actor messaging. 5 Chapter 2 · Messages All the Way Up Asynchronous communication The reason actors ignore message sending as an event, and emphasize message arrival instead, is that message transmission between actors may incur some delay. For instance, actor A may send a message to B, and include C as a continuation. Although A activates C’s message, there may be some delay between A sending the message and C receiving a message.
That implementation would expect a message with a single integer, in addition to a name that uniquely identifies the addition calculation. Since addition is commutative, the order of message transmission does not matter: The addition actor saves away the initial value received via the first actor message. Upon receiving the second integer with a similarly named calculation, the addition actor performs the arithmetic operation and sends the reply. Consider, however, a version of the arithmetic actor designed to add a set of integers.
As soon as the actor receives the last element in the series, it could send the result to the continuation. But since we cannot guarantee the message delivery order, the last element may be received in any order, resulting in possibly the premature sending of the result. , reworking the messages’ contents. For instance, the message described previously could include the number of elements in the series, instead of the lastElement flag. Throughout this book, we will include tips and techniques to design actor communication that does not rely on message order.