An outline of Chitonga grammar by Hazel Carter

By Hazel Carter

This can be the fourth in a sequence of person courses on Zambian languages and grammar. The purpose of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which grew to become really in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian executive to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guideline. This quantity presents a grammatical caricature of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters conceal humans and dialects, sound platforms and orthography, morphology and syntax.

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To comefrom there)'. Nominal Affixes These are attachedto nominals, but do not form paí of úe class concord system. inexpressing 'have'. ' For tonal reasonswhich will not be describedhere,_nzí? what kind of ... 'whatkínd of (thing)is it? ' (úing in classZ) Seealso page54 for table: Class Concords in the Verbal Svstem. I' Tongaverbs showthe typical Bântu structureof affixes attachedround a lexicar core,câfled a radicalor roo! send, final vowel (part oftense marker) Compound verbs are formedwith an auxiliary I X standsfor whichevermay be úe classnurnberofthç adjectiveor pronouÍr.

They are --r. Various authorshaveuseddífferenttermsfor úis, asshownin the paragraphheading. -muntu 's/heis a person,an African' m-bantu 'they arepeople' p-cìsani 'it is a cloth' Classla hasBga- with L toneexceptbeforesi-, 11gu-ciwena 'it's a crocodile' ngy-ní? ' 4gti-slnkondo 'he is an enemy' Class2a hasrybaa-z mbaaciwena 'they arecrocodiles' mbaá-ní? ' rybaá-slnlando 'úey areenemies' Class5 haspdi-, takingon thetoneofthe IV: 11di-bbwe 'it's a sÍone' Classes9 and l0 have4È, takingon thetoneofthe IV , pí-mpóngo 'it's a goat' 25 b) definiteor restricted This statesthat the objectis a particularmemberofthe categoryor species.

2a bâ-talts ba-ciwena bá-sinkondo ba-tumaumbve b'á-nyína my father crocodiles en€mies graveyards hidher/their moúer Class2a seÍv€salsoas 'honorific plural'. 2b bán'á-táta b,ini-Mwa (sg. nú-loiwa Ciass1) bómá-nyína fathçrs Euopeans their mothers Class2b s€rvesaspluÌal for honorific usagesofClass 2a. 3 mú-sámt mu-wtda ,nwí-ini mw-ézl m-oyo mlono tÍee gaÍden handle moon, month hcaÍt ftsh-bask€t 2l 4 mí-sdmu myu-unda mí-ini ,rry-ézi my-oyo ntyo-ono rèçs gardens handles months heaÍts fish-baskets Classes3/4 contain mostnamesoftrees.

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