By N. A. Burke, J. A. Thornton (auth.), Jeffrey A. Thornton, W. K. Nduku (eds.)
'And God stated, allow there be a firmament in the course of the waters, and enable it divide the waters from the waters. ' Genesis 1:6 Lake McIlwaine is an artificial lake. It was once shaped in 1952 through the Hunyani poort Dam and is located at the Hunyani River a few 37 km southwest of Salisbury* within the Republic of Zimbabwe**. it's a lake of many facets: being a favored leisure web site, the City's fundamental water offer reservoir (and the fourth biggest impoundment in Zimbabwe), a resource of irrigation water to downstream farms, a huge fishery, and, till the Nineteen Seventies, the receptacle of Salisbury's sewage effluent. it really is, briefly, ordinary of such a lot of 'urban' lakes in Africa and through the international. Lake McIlwaine can also be detailed, to my wisdom: being among the 1st of the key man-made lakes at the continent to be afflicted by what's often called cultural eutrophication, and the 1st to be r:ehabilitated to a mesotrophic country via a rational programme of lake administration. This quantity synthesizes this technique of eutrophication and restoration by way of the geology and geography (Chapter 2), physics (Chapter 3), chemistry (Chapter four) and biology (Chapter five) of the lake, and, while dialogue of the trophic relationships among those parts is past the scope of this monograph, discusses its utilisation, conservation and administration (Chapter 6). * next to writing, the identify of the Zimbabwean capital used to be replaced to Harare on 18 April 1982. - Ed.
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Extra resources for Lake Mcilwaine: The Eutrophication and Recovery of a Tropical African Man-Made Lake
9). The very significant decline in lake level during 1968 had major ecological effects, 38 200 150 ,. 1958-59 I I I J.. 3 100 0 --' u... ---'- ........ ~ ~ --' u... 1 I .... , ~ ::x:: I- z 0 ::E 50 «--' I0 I- 0 30 20 1978-79 10 JFMA M J J A S Fig. 8 Seasonal variation in riverine inflows and outflows during 1958-59, 1968-69 and 1978-79. 39 0" O~ C> a.. ::J o o~--~--~--~------~ 1;55 Fig . 9 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 Variation in total annual inflow and outflow of Lake McIlwaine between 1954 and 1979.
3 100 0 --' u... ---'- ........ ~ ~ --' u... 1 I .... , ~ ::x:: I- z 0 ::E 50 «--' I0 I- 0 30 20 1978-79 10 JFMA M J J A S Fig. 8 Seasonal variation in riverine inflows and outflows during 1958-59, 1968-69 and 1978-79. 39 0" O~ C> a.. ::J o o~--~--~--~------~ 1;55 Fig . 9 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 Variation in total annual inflow and outflow of Lake McIlwaine between 1954 and 1979. particularly on the water chemistry and benthic fauna of the lake (Marshall and Falconer, 1973; Marshall, 1978). Similar effects probably occurred again in 1973.
Concentrations are in mg I-I except where noted lake became eutrophied, although the ranges in concentration remain fairly large. 04 mg I-I since 1976. This is a reduction of over 70% in terms of phosphorus concentration, and of90% in terms of ammonia concentration (Figs. 5 and 6). Similar reductions in phosphorus concentrations have been observed in the Makabusi and Marimba Rivers. 7 mg P I-I. Nitrate concentrations, unlike most other trophic state indicators in Table 2, have continued to increase following the diversion of wastewater nutrients to pasture irrigation schemes (Fig.