By G. Yirgu
The seismically and volcanically lively East African Rift process is a perfect laboratory for continental break-up tactics: it encompasses all phases of rift improvement. Its northernmost sectors in the Afar volcanic province contain failed rifts, nascent sea-floor spreading, and younger passive continental margins linked to a number of mantle plumes. a few versions were proposed to give an explanation for the good fortune and failure of continental rift zones, yet there is still no consensus on how pressure localizes to accomplish rupture of at the start 125-250 km-thick plates, or at the interplay among the plates and asthenospheric approaches. This selection of papers offers new structural, stratigraphic, geochemical and geophysical info and numerical versions had to get to the bottom of primary questions pertaining to continental break-up and mantle plume techniques. the focal point is on how mantle soften intrudes and is shipped in the course of the plate, and the way this magma intrusion procedure controls along-axis segmentation and enables break-up.Also to be had: Permo-carboniferous Magmatism And Rifting in Europe - ISBN 1862391521 The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea zone - ISBN 1862391114 past due Cenozoic Environments and Hominid Evolution: A Tribute to the overdue invoice Bishop - ISBN 1862390363
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The seismically and volcanically energetic East African Rift procedure is a perfect laboratory for continental break-up strategies: it encompasses all phases of rift improvement. Its northernmost sectors in the Afar volcanic province contain failed rifts, nascent sea-floor spreading, and younger passive continental margins linked to a number of mantle plumes.
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Additional info for The Afar volcanic province within the East African rift system
The crust of the southern Red Sea is about half as thick as in Afar for at least as far south as lat. 14 ° N (Egloff et aL 1991), so here too magma supply was less than in central Afar. Though several volcanoes exist in the southernmost Red Sea, magma delivery was not sufficient to bring the crust of this area to sea level. Discussion and conclusion This work attempted to relate the evolution and structure of Afar and of the neighbouring areas to the Nubia, Arabia and Somali plate kinematics. Knowledge of these motions allows to determine the size and shape of new area that opened between these plates and allows to construct palinspastic maps.
2003) show a similar motion, but with a somewhat slower velocity. The motion since 10 Ma (Table 2) is not directly constrained. It can either be approximated by extrapolating the 5 Ma motion, by analogy with the Gulf of Aden, Table 1. 7 Ma ago. (3) Jestin et al. (1994). 2 Ma. (5) McCluskyet al. (2003),GPS data. ccw, counterclockwise. 28 Z. GARFUNKEL & M. BEYTH Table 2. Models of the relative motion between Nub, Arab, Som in the last 10 Ma Euler pole Lat (°N) Long (°E) Rotation (°ccw) A. A r b - N u b : opening of Red Sea, extrapolated to 10 Ma from Table 1 (R1)* (R2) (R3) B.
Another early rift structure is evidenced by nearly 1 km of lake sediments and volcanics along a c. 600km long narrow belt inland of the coast of Saudi Arabia that were interpreted as the fill of an embryonic continental rift (Schmidt et al. 1982; Bohannon 1986: Brown et al. 1989). They were strongly faulted and then intruded by sills and dikes with 4°Ar/39Ar ages of 24 Ma to c. 20 Ma (Sebai et al. 1991), so here too rifting was under way a few My after the end of the flood volcanism. Thus, shortly after the flood volcanism around Afar the rifts along the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea subsided enough to be invaded by the sea, though minor initial faulting appears to have begun earlier.